The Immorality of the State by Mikhail Bakunin [1814-1876] Ethics: Morality of the State . anything else explain the prodigious work of Bakunin in the revolutionary movement of the century. States are breaking up to give place to a new order, in which, as Bakunin was fond of saying, “human justice will be substituted for divine justice.” If it is allowable to cite any one name from those of the revolutionists who have taken part in this immense work of renovation, there is not one that may be singled out with more justice than that of Michael Bakunin. For Bakunin, the state is a ‘vast slaughterhouse’ or ‘enormous cemetery’ - an illegitimate, artificial and imposed form of authority that crushes personal freedom. Bakunin’s predictions about state-dominated economy and regimentation of labor were based on measures advocated in the Communist Manifesto: centralization of credit and transportation by the State, obligatory work for all, the establishment of industrial armies, particularly in agriculture, etc. But Jean Jacques is not the only one to have said this. It was a great fallacy on the part of Jean Jacques Rousseau to have assumed that primitive society was established by a free contract entered into by savages. Bakunin's most famous work, published in various lengths, at times ending mid-second section with the line "This is the sense in which we are really Anarchists. No less than the state, then, religion is the negation of freedom and equality. The Theory of Social Contract. The pamphlets published by him, in Russian, French, and Italian, however important Mikhail Bakunin. ", this version is the most complete form of the work published hitherto. It was a great mistake on the part of Jean Jacques Rousseau to have thought that primitive society was established through a free agreement among savages. Bakunin writes, "the real world and men are nothing; God being truth, justice, goodness, beauty, power, and life, man is falsehood, inequity, evil, ugliness, impotence, and death. Source: We have said that man is not only the most individualistic being on earth – he is also the most social. God being master, man is the slave." Man is not only the most individual being on earth-he is also the most social being. Every State, of whatever kind it may be, partakes of this divine essence.” (A History of Economic Doctrines, p. 435) Now this close identification of the spirit of God and the spirit of the State is reason enough why Bakunin, as an enemy the State, should also have considered it necessary to attack religion. Rousseau's Theory of the State.

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